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LVC Simulation Support
TAPE and its Strong Point Research Division, contributed/is currently contributing to Live Virtual Constructive (LVC) Simulation Support, managing subject matter experts (SME’s) as part of a team of companies for two different contracts/branches of the US Military.
First we did so within the Systems Engineering and Technical Assistance (SETA) Army contract, providing, among other things, comprehensive LVC Simulation Support to the Army/DoD (TAPE/Strong Point Research as such, provided over a decade of such support to Program Executive Office (PEO) Simulation, Training and Instrumentation (STRI)); and currently, TAPE is providing LVC Simulation Support to the U.S. Marine Corps Systems Command (MARCORSYSCOM), for the Program Manager Training Systems (PM TRASYS) Contract.
TAPE’s contribution to these efforts is discussed more below but first, the Dept of Defense (DoD) Simulation Glossary distinguishes between LVC Simulation types as follows:
- Live – A simulation involving real people operating real systems. Military training events using real equipment are live simulations. They are considered simulations because they are not conducted against a live enemy.
- Virtual – A simulation involving real people operating simulated systems. Virtual simulations inject a Human-in-the-Loop (Human-in-the-loop or HITL is defined as a model that requires human interaction.) into a central role by exercising motor control skills (e.g., flying jet or tank simulator), decision making skills (e.g., committing fire control resources to action), or communication skills.
- Constructive – A simulation involving simulated people operating simulated systems. Real people stimulate (make inputs to) such simulations, but are not involved in determining the outcomes. A constructive simulation is a computer program. For example, a military user may input data instructing a unit to move and to engage an enemy target. The constructive simulation determines the speed of movement, the effect of the engagement with the enemy and any battle damage that may occur. These terms should not be confused with specific constructive models such as Computer Generated Forces (CGF), a generic term used to refer to computer representations of forces in simulations that attempts to model human behavior. CGF is just one example model being used in a constructive environment. There are many types of constructive models that involve simulated people operating simulated systems.
TAPE’s Army/SETA contract role in the Live category of simulation support involved supporting both the Home Station Instrumentation Training System (HITS) as well as the Multiple Integrated Laser Engagement System (MILES).
The HITS system is designed to enhance training at home stations by instrumenting force-on-force live training exercises for battalion-and-below units. HITS includes automated tools to establish medium fidelity cause-and-effect analysis of battalion-and-below collective training performance in unified land operations. It is an integrated system of computer software and hardware; workstations; databases; voice, video, and data recording; production and presentation equipment; interface devices; and communication networks.
MILES is used by the U.S. military and other armed forces around the world for training purposes. It uses lasers and blank cartridges to simulate actual battle. Individual soldiers carry small laser receivers scattered over their bodies, which detect when the soldier has been illuminated by a firearm’s laser. Each laser transmitter is set to mimic the effective range of the weapon on which it is used. When a person is “hit”, a medic can use the digital readout to determine which first aid method to practice. Different versions of MILES systems are available to both US and international militaries. The capabilities of the individual systems can vary significantly but in general all modern systems carry information about the shooter, weapon and ammunition in the laser.
TAPE’s role in the Army/SETA contract for the Virtual category of simulation support involved advising the Army on selection of Image generation capability for Aviation Combined Arms Tactical Trainer (AVCATT) and Close Combat Tactical Trainer (CCTT) systems and following up on improvements to same.
The AVCATT is Army aviation’s only collective training system of record for Active, Reserve and ARNG aviation units. AVCATT is a mobile multi-station virtual simulation device that supports unit collective and combined arms training for helicopter aircrews. AVCATT is composed of two trailers per suite with six reconfigurable modules for the Apache Longbow, Chinook, Kiowa Warrior, Lakota and Black Hawk. The NCM3 introduces a third trailer containing two reconfigurable modules which can be linked to AVCATT’s UH-60 Black Hawk and CH-47 Chinook cockpit configurations to support a unit’s specific mission training requirements. Both the AVCATT and NCM3 use Helmet Mounted Displays (HMD) for out-the-window scenes.
The CCTT is a collective training program composed of three subsystems: CCTT, Reconfigurable Vehicle Tactical Trainer (RVTT) and Dismounted Soldier Training System (DSTS). CCTT supports the virtual training of infantry, armor, mechanized infantry, cavalry and armored reconnaissance units from squad through battalion/squadron level, to include their staffs. The primary training audience operates from full crew simulators, mock-up command posts and live battalion command posts to accomplish their combined arms training tasks. Units train and perform tasks on these products in order to successfully accomplish their collective missions. These simulators and Semi Automated Forces (SAFs) are connected via a local area network to provide real-time, fully interactive, collective task training on computer generated terrain.
TAPE’s role in the Army/SETA contract for the Constructive category of simulation support involved supporting the model and simulation systems for Army Command Control Capabilities.
In addition to the LVC Support within the SETA contract, as explained above, TAPE also supported the Army in the following ways:
- Modeling and Simulation for Training means creating the environment of the virtual representation of visual models. For Modeling and Simulation for Training support, TAPE SME’s prepared for visual representation of the Army platforms and Aviation platforms as well as Associated Command and Control simulation capabilities, all in order to support training. Other factors considered included Trained databases, for the training environment, and behaviors and capabilities of both soldiers for training and platforms in CCTT/AVCATT. These scenarios/databases were provided by SE Corps, and maintained and updated by SE Corps.
- In Operational Systems Training TAPE SME’s worked with live and actual Army operations systems, either the vehicles or in tactical communications interactive control systems to train soldiers in a training environment.
- For Exercise and Scenario Planning TAPE SME’s prepared for exercises of determining who’s playing, where they’re playing, what vehicles are they manning, what aviation components are involved in, and what command and control systems support the movement of soldiers across a training environment in order to represent live virtual representations, working together to provide overall comprehensive Army training.